Second-law applied to access rights
“I have excessive privileges for accessing this system. Please reduce my access rights to avoid unintended risk to our users.”
That is a statement you are unlikely to hear from any engineer or operations person tasked with running an online service. Far more likely are demands for additional access, couched in terms of an immediate crisis involving some urgent task that can not be performed without a password, root access on some server or being added to some privileged group. The principle of least privilege states that people and systems should only be granted those permissions absolutely necessary to perform their job. Holding this line in practice is an uphill battle. Similar to the increase of entropy dictated by the second-law of thermodynamics, access rights inexorably seem to expand over time, converging on a steady state where everyone has access to everything.
That isn’t surprising given the dynamics of operating services. Missing rights are quickly noticed when someone going about their work runs into an abrupt “access denied” error. Excessive, unnecessary privileges have no such overt consequences. They are only identified after a painstaking audit of access logs and security policies. A corollary: it is easy to grant more access, it is much harder to take it away. The effects of removing existing privilege are difficult to predict. Will that break an existing process? Was this person ever accessing that system? No wonder that employee departures are about the only time most companies reduce access. Doing it any other time preemptively requires some data crunching: mine audit logs to infer who accessed some resource in the last couple of weeks and compare that against all users with access. But even that may not tell the whole story. For example, often access is granted to plan for a worst-case disaster scenario, when employees who carry out some role in the normal course of affairs are no longer able to perform that role and their backups— who may never have accessed the system until that point— must step in.
Part of the problem is scaling teams: a policy that starts out entirely consistent with least-privilege can become a free-for-all when amplified to a larger team. Small companies often have very little in the way of formal separation of duties between engineering and operations. In a startup of 5 employees, people naturally gravitate to being jack-of-all-trades. If any person may be asked to perform any task, it is not entirely unreasonable for everyone to have root/administrator rights on every server the company manages. But once that rule is applied reflexively for every new hire (“all engineers get root on every box”) as the company scales to 100 people, there is massive risk amplification. It used to be that only five people could cause significant damage, whether by virtue of inadvertent mistakes or deliberate malfeasance. Now there are a hundred people capable of inflicting that level of harm, and not all of them may even have the same level of security awareness as the founding group.
There is also a subtle, cultural problem with attempting to pare down access. It is commonly interpreted as signaling distrust. In the same way that granting access to some system implies that person can be trusted with access to resources on that system—user data, confidential HR records, company financials— retracting that privilege can be seen as a harsh pronouncement on the untrustworthiness of the same person.
This post is an attempt to challenge that perception, primarily by pointing out that internal controls are not only, or even primarily, concerned with insider risk. Following the logic of least-privilege hardens systems against the more common threats from external actors. More subtly it protects employees from becoming a high-value target for persistent, highly-skilled attackers.
Game of numbers
Consider the probability of an employee device being compromised by malware. This could happen through different avenues such as unwittingly installing an application that had been back-doored or visiting a malicious website with a vulnerable browser or plugin. Suppose that there is one in a thousand (0.1%) chance of this happening to any given employee in the course of a month when they are going about their daily routine surfing the web and installing new app/updates/packages from different locations. Going back to our hypothetical examples above, for the garage company with five engineers there is about 6% chance that at least one person will get their machine owned after a year. But the post-seed-round startup with 100 engineers is looking at odds of 70%—in other words, more likely than not.
If every one of those hundred engineers had unfettered access to company systems, all of those resources at risk. As the saying goes: if an attacker is executing arbitrary code on your computer, it is no longer your computer. The adversary can use compromised hosts as stepping stone to access other resources such as internal websites, databases containing customer information or production system. Note that neither two-factor authentication nor hardware tokens help under this threat model. A patient attacker can simply wait for the legitimate user to scan their fingerprint, connect USB token/smart-card, push buttons, perform an interpretive dance or whatever other bizarre ritual is required for successful authentication, piggy-backing on the resulting session to access remote resources once the user initiates a connection.
That in a nutshell is the main problem with over-extended access policies: every person in the organization becomes a critical point of failure against external attacks. This is purely a matter of probabilities; it is not casting aspersions on whether employees in question are honest, well-meaning or diligent. The never-ending supply of Flash 0-day vulnerabilities affects hard-working employees just as much as it affects the slackers. Similarly malicious ads finding their way into popular websites pose a threat to all visitors running vulnerable software without discriminating against their intentions.
Painting a target on the home team
There is a more subtle reason that over-broad access rights are dangerous not only for the organization overall, but for the individuals carrying them. It may end up painting a target on those employees in the eyes of a persistent attacker. Recall that one of the distinguishing factors for a targeted attack is the extensive investment in mapping out the organization the adversary is attempting to infiltrate. For example, they may perform basic reconnaissance through open-source channels including LinkedIn or Twitter to identify key employees and organizational structure. Assuming that information about internal roles can not be kept secret indefinitely, one concludes that attackers will develop a good idea of which persons they need to go after in order to succeed. Exactly who ends up being under the virtual cross-hairs depends on their objectives.
For run of the mill financial fraud, high-level executives and accounting personnel are obvious targets. For instance the 2014 attack on BitStamp started out with carefully tailored spear-phishing messages to executives, followed by successfully impersonating those executives to request transfer of Bitcoin. FBI has issued a general warning about these scams last year warning that “… schemers go to great lengths to spoof company e-mail or use social engineering to assume the identity of the CEO, a company attorney, or trusted vendor. They research employees who manage money and use language specific to the company they are targeting, then they request a wire fraud transfer using dollar amounts that lend legitimacy.”
While the FBI attributes a disputed figure of $2.3B in losses to such scams, perhaps the more remarkable part of this trend is: these are relatively simple and broadly accessible attacks. There are no fancy zero-days or creative new exploits techniques involved requiring nation-state level of expertise. Yet even crooks carrying out these amateurish smash-and-grab operations were capable of mapping out the organization structure and homing in on the right individuals.
More dangerous than the get-rich-quick attackers are those pursuing long-term, stealth persistence for intelligence gathering. This class of adversary is less interested in hawking credit-card numbers than retaining long-term access to company systems for ongoing information gathering. For example they could be interested in customer data, stealing intellectual property or simply using the current target as stepping stone for the next attack. That level of access requires gaining deep access to company systems, not just reading the email inbox an executive or two. Emails alone are not enough when the objective is nothing less than full control of IT infrastructure.
This is where highly-privileged employees come into the picture. It is a conservative assumption that resourceful attackers will identify the key personnel to go after. (That need not happen all at once; gaining initial access to an unprivileged account often allows looking around to identify other accounts.) Those with root access on production systems where customer data is stored are particularly high-value targets. They provide the type of low-level access to infrastructure which permit deploying additional offensive capabilities such as planting malware which is not possible with access to email alone. Equally high-profile as targets are internal IT personnel with the means to compromise other employee machines. for example by using a centralized-management solution to deploy arbitrary code.
It is difficult to avoid the existence of highly privileged accounts. When something goes wrong on a server in the data-center, the assumption is that someone can remotely connect and get root access in order to diagnose/fix the problem. Similarly for internal IT: when an employee forgets their password or experiences problems with their machine, there is someone they can turn to for help and that person will be able to reset their password or log into their machine to troubleshoot. Those users with the proverbial keys to the kingdom are understood be in the cross-hairs. They will be expected to exercise greater degree of caution and maintain higher standards of operational security than the average employee. Their activity will be monitored carefully and any signs of unusual activity investigated promptly.
The challenge for an organization is keeping the size of that group “manageable” in relation to the that of the company itself. If everyone has root everywhere or everyone can effectively compromise every other person through shared infrastructure (sometimes such dependencies can be subtle) the entire company becomes one high value target. Any individual failure has far-reaching consequences. Every successful attack against one employee becomes a major incident potentially impacting all assets.
Setting the right example
Information security professionals can lead by example in pushing back against gratuitous access policies. It is very common for security teams to be among the worst-offenders in not following least privilege. When this blogger was in charge of security at Airbnb, everyone wanted to gift security team more access to everything: administrator role at AWS, SSH to production servers running the site and many other creative ways to access customer data. Mere appearance of the word “security” in job titles seems to confer a sense of infallibility: not only are these fellows deserving of ultimate trust with the most valuable company information, but they must also have perfect operational security practices and zero chance of falling victim to attacks that may befall the standard engineer. These assumptions are dangerous. By virtue of getting access, we all introduce risk to the system regardless of how good our opsec game may be. Comparing the incremental risk to benefits generated on a case-by-case basis is a better approach to crafting access policies. If someone is constantly exercising their new privileges to help their overloaded colleagues solve problems, the case is easy to make. If on the other hand the system is used infrequently or never—suggesting access rights were given out of a reflexive process born out of hypothetical future scenarios—the benefits are unclear. Meanwhile risks will increase, because the person is less likely to be familiar with sound security practices for correctly using that system. Making these judgment calls is part of sound risk management.