[Full disclosure: the author works on security for a cryptocurrency exchange]
The collapse of Mt. Gox in 2014 and its aftermath has inspired a healthy dose of skepticism towards storing cryptocurrency with online services. It has also inspired the search for decentralized exchange models where the functionality provided by MtGox can be realized without a single point-of-failure where all risk is concentrated. While the mystery of what went on at Mt Gox remains unresolved to this day, blockchain designs have continued to evolve. Bitcoin itself has not changed much at the protocol level, although it added a couple of new instructions to the scripting language. More significant advances happened with the introduction of segregated-witness, along with the emergence of so-called “layer 2” solutions for scaling such as the Lightning Network. Even more promising is the emergence of alternative blockchains capable of expressing more complex semantics, most notably Ethereum with its Turing-complete smart-contract language. This makes it a good time to revisit the problem of decentralized cryptocurrency exchange without the concentration risk created by storing funds.
Answering this question in turn requires reexamining the purpose of an exchange. At the simplest level, an exchange connects buyers and sellers. Sellers post the quantity they are willing to part with and a price they are willing to accept. Buyers in turn place bids to purchase a specific quantity at a price of their choosing. When these two sides “cross”—the bid meets or exceeds an ask— a trade is executed. The exchange facilitates the transfer of assets in both directions, delivering assets to the buyer while compensating the seller with the funds provided by the buyer.
In an ideal world where everyone is good for their word, this arrangement does not require parking any funds with the exchange. If Alice offers to sell 1BTC and Bob has agreed to purchase that for $1200, we can count on Alice to deliver the cryptocurrency and Bob to send the US dollars. In this hypothetical universe, they do not have to place funds in escrow with the exchange or for that matter any other third-party. Bob can wire fiat currency to Alice’s bank-account and Alice sends Bitcoin over the blockchain to Bob’s address. In reality of course people frequently deviate from expected protocol, violate contractual obligations or engage in outright fraud. Perhaps Bob never had the funds to begin with or he had a change of heart after finding a cheaper price on another exchange after agreeing to the trade with Alice.
These are examples of counter-party risk. It becomes increasingly unmanageable at scale. It would be one thing if Alice and Bob happen to know each other, or expect to be doing business continuously—in these scenarios “defecting” and trying to cheat the other side becomes counterproductive. With thousands of participants in the market and interactions between any pair being infrequent, there is not much of an opportunity to build up a reputation. It is infeasible for everyone to keep tabs on the trustworthiness of every potential counter-party they may be trading with, or to disadvantage new participants because they have no prior history to evaluate.
The standard model for exchanges provides one possible solution to this problem: Alice and Bob both deposit their funds with the exchange. The exchange is responsible for ensuring that all orders are fully covered by funds under custody. Using the example of BTC/USD trading, Alice can only offer to sell Bitcoin she has stored at the exchange and Bob can only place buy orders that his fiat balance can cover. Bob can be confident that the assets he just bid on are not phantom-Bitcoins that may fail to materialize after the trade completes. Likewise Alice knows she is guaranteed to receive USD regardless of which customer ends up being paired with her order.
The counter-party risk is mitigated but only at the expense of creating new challenges. In this model, the exchange becomes a custodian funds for everyone participating in the market. Aside from the obvious risk of a MtGox-type implosion, it creates a liquidity problem for these actors: their funds are tied up. Consider that a trader will be interested in betting on multiple cryptocurrencies across multiple exchanges. Even within a single trading pair such as USD/BTC, there are significant disparities in prices across exchange, creating arbitrage opportunities. But exploiting such disparities requires either maintaining positions everywhere or rapid funds movement between exchanges. Speed of Bitcoin movement is governed by mining time—which is an immutable property of the protocol, fixed at 10 minutes on average— and competition against other transactions vying for scarce room in the next block. In principle fiat currency can be moved much faster using the Federal Reserve wire system but that too depends on the implementation of wire transfer functionality at each exchange. All of this spells increased friction for moving in/out of markets, as well as greater amount of capital committed at multiple exchanges in anticipation of trading opportunities.
Is it possible to eliminate counter-party risk without introducing these inefficiencies? Over the years, alternative models have been put forward for trading cryptocurrency while eliminating or at least greatly reducing the concentration of risk. For example Bitsquare bills itself as a decentralized exchange, noting that it does not hold any user funds. Behind the scenes, this is achieved by relying on trusted arbitrators to mediate exchanges and resolve disputes:
“If Trader A fails to confirm the receipt of a national currency transfer within the allotted time (e.g. six days for SEPA, one day for OKPay, etc.), a button to contact the arbitrator will appear to both traders. Trader B will then be able to submit evidence to the arbitrator that he did, in fact, send the national currency. Alternatively, if Trader B never sent the national currency, Trader A will be able to submit evidence to the arbitrator that the funds were never received.”
In other words, counter-party risk is managed by having humans in the loop acting as trusted third-parties, rendering judgment on which side of the trade failed to live up to their obligations. The system is designed with economic incentives to encourage following the protocol: backing out of a trade or failing to deliver promised asset does result in loss of funds for the party at fault. (Interesting enough, the punitive damages are rewarded to the arbitrator, rather than the counter-party inconvenienced by that transgression. It is practically in the interest of arbitrators to have participants misbehave, since they get to collect additional payments above and beyond their usual fee.) Arbitrators are also required to post a significant bond, which they will lose if they are caught colluding with participants to deviate from the protocol.
Even with the fallibility of human arbitrators, this system achieves the stated goal of diffusing risk: instead of relying on the exchange to safeguard all funds, participants rely on individual arbitrators to watch over much smaller amounts at stake in specific trades. But there are other types of risk this arrangement can not hedge against, notably that of charge-backs. This is a very common challenge when trying to design a system for trading fiat currency against cryptocurrency. Blockchain transfers are irreversible by design. By contrast, most common options for transmitting fiat can be reversed in case they are disputed. For example, if an ACH transfer is initiated using stolen online banking credentials, the legitimate owner can later object to this transaction by notifying their bank in writing. Depending on the situation, they may have up to 60 days to do so. If the bank is convinced that the ACH was unauthorized, they can reverse the ACH transfer. What this means is that Alice can face an unpleasant surprise many weeks after releasing Bitcoin to Bob. Bob— or whoever owns the account Bob used to send those funds— can recover the funds Alice received as proceeds, leaving her holding the proverbial bag, since she has no recourse to clawing back bitcoin.
Also note that functionality is somewhat reduced compared to a traditional exchange. As the FAQ notes, settlement phase can take multiple days depending on how fiat-currency is sourced. Bitcoin purchased this way is not available immediately; it can not be transferred to a personal wallet or used to pay for purchase. That’s a stark contrast from a conventional exchange where settlement is nearly instantaneous. Once the trade has executed, either side can take their USD or BTC, and use it right away, withdraw to another address or place orders for a different pair such as BTC/ETH. In P2P models, availability of funds depends on the fiat payment clearing to the satisfaction of the counter-party, and that person getting around to sending the cryptocurrency. High-frequency trading in the blink of an eye, this is not.
Looking beyond fielded systems to what is possible in theory, we can ask whether there are any results in cryptography that can provide a basis for truly decentralized, trust-free trading of currencies. Here the news is somewhat mixed.
This problem in the abstract has been studied under the rubric of fair-exchange. A fair-exchange protocol is an interactive scheme for two parties to exchange secrets in an all-or-nothing manner. That is, Alice has some secret A and Bob has a different secret B. The goal is to design a protocol such that after a number of back-and-forth messages, one of two outcomes happen:
- Alice has obtained B and Bob has obtained A.
- Neither one has learned anything new
This protocol is “fair” because neither side comes out ahead in any outcome. By contrast, if there was an outcome where Alice learns B and Bob walks away empty-handed, the result would be decidedly unfair to Bob. There is a nagging question here of how participants can verify the value and/or legitimacy of their respective secrets ahead of time. But assuming that problem can be solved, such protocols would be incredibly useful in many contexts including cryptocurrency. For example if A happens to be a private-key controlling an Ethereum account while B controls some bitcoin, one could implement BTC/ETH trade by arranging for an exchange of those secrets.
Now the bad news: there is an impossibility result proving that such protocols can not exist. A 1999 paper titled “On the Impossibility of Fair Exchange without a Trusted Third Party” shows exactly what the title says: there exists no protocol which can achieve the above objectives with only Alice and Bob in the picture. There must be an impartial referee Trent such that if either Alice or Bob deviate from the protocol, Trent can intervene and force the protocol to produce an equitable outcome. The silver lining is that the negative result does not rule out so-called optimistic fair-exchange, where third-party involvement is not required provided everyone duly performs their assigned role. The referee is only asked to intervene when one side deviates from the expected sequence. But “hope is not a method,” as the saying goes. Given the sordid history of scams and fraudulent behavior in cryptocurrency, counting on everyone to follow the protocol is naive.
On paper this does not bode well for the vision of implementing trust-free exchange. But this is where blockchains provide a surprising assist: it has been observed that the blockchain itself can assume the role of an impartial third-party. Here is a simple example from 2014 where Andrychowicz et al. leverage Bitcoin to improve on a well-known cryptographic protocol for coin-flipping. Slightly simplified, the original protocol proceeds this way:
- Alice and Bob both pick a random bit string
- They “commit” to their strings, by computing a cryptographic hash of that value and publishing that commitment
- After both have committed, each side “opens” the commitment by revealing the original string
- Since the hash function is public, both sides can check that commitments were opened correctly
- Alice and Bob now compare the least-significant bits of the two unveiled strings. If those bits are identical, Alice wins the coin-toss. Otherwise Bob wins.
This is great in theory but what happens if Bob stops at step #3? After all, once Alice reveals her commitment, Bob has full-knowledge of both strings. He can already see the writing on the wall if he lost. That would be a great time to feign network connection issues, Windows 10 upgrade or any other excuse to stop short of revealing his original choice to prevent Alice from obtaining the information necessary to prove she won the coin-toss.
Enter Bitcoin. Blockchains allow defining payments according to predetermined rules. Those rules have fixed capabilities; they can not magically reach out into the real world, dive-tackle Bob and compel him to continue protocol execution. But they can arrange for the next best outcome: make it economically costly for Bob to deviate from the protocol. Specifically Alice and Bob both must commit some funds as good-faith deposit at the outset. To reclaim their money, they must open the commitment and reveal their original bit-string by a set deadline. If either side fails to complete the protocol in a timely manner, the other party can claim their deposit. This outcome is “fair” in the sense that Bob backing out (regardless of how creative his excuse is) results in Alice being compensated.
Variants of this idea can be used to design protocols for fair exchange of crypto-currency between different blockchains. The next post will look at a specific example involving Bitcoin and Ethereum. This is admittedly a case of looking for keys under the lamp-post; developing protocols to exchange crypto-currencies is much easier than trading against fiat. Blockchain payments proceed according to well-defined mathematical structures. By contrast, fiat movement involves notions such as ACH or wire-transfers that are extrinsic to the blockchain, and not easily mapped to those constructs.